Technical Publications

Here you can download all technical handbooks published by Proklima. The handbooks are directed at technical experts, trainers and policy-makers, who are dealing with refrigeration, air-conditioning and foam technologies.

Cover Solar Cooling for Industry and Commerce (SCIC) – Study on the Solar Cooling Potential in Jordan

Solar Cooling for Industry and Commerce – Study on the Solar Cooling Potential in Jordan

Air conditioning contributes significantly to electricity demand and its use is expected to increase along with economic growth and rising global temperatures. Solar cooling absorption technologies can use up to 75 percent less electricity than conventional compression chillers. Further environmental and climate benefits also result from the use of natural refrigerants (e.g. lithium bromide in the case of an absorption chiller), virtually eliminating direct greenhouse gas emissions from leakages of refrigerants with high global warming potential. This study explores the market potential of solar cooling in Jordan given two scenarios: (1) moderate increase in technology and (2) high market penetration under high energy prices and accelerated phase out of fluorinated gases. The study also elaborates on strategies to overcome existing market barriers for solar cooling such as high upfront investment costs( due to lack in economies of scale), lack of local technology suppliers and specialized technicians, and lack of awareness among policy makers and end users.

 

Cover Best Practice Handbook for Commercial Refrigeration in Supermarkets

Best Practice Handbook for Commercial Refrigeration in Supermarkets

This handbook has been prepared for training courses and capacity building of refrigeration technicians in the framework of the Brazilian HCFC Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP). The publication illustrates the most important tools and practices used in the installation, operation, maintenance and repair of commercial refrigeration systems in supermarkets. Moreover, it offers professional guidance to technicians for the application of best refrigeration practices by providing essential knowledge on the containment of refrigerants.

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Portuguese description

Apostila de Boas Práticas para Refrigeração em Supermercados

Esta apostila foi elaborada no âmbito do Programa Brasileiro de Eliminação dos HCFCs (PBH) para cursos de treinamento e capacitação de técnicos refrigeristas. A publicação ilustra as mais importantes ferramentas e práticas utilizadas nos serviços de instalação, operação, manutenção e reparo de sistemas de refrigeração comercial de supermercados e visa oferecer orientação profissional aos técnicos que trabalham no setor de supermercados para a aplicação das boas práticas nos serviços relacionados à refrigeração, fornecendo conhecimento essencial para a contenção de fluidos frigoríficos.

 

Cover Best Practice Handbook for Split Air Conditioning Systems

Best Practice Handbook for Split Air Conditioning Systems

This handbook has been prepared for training courses and capacity building of refrigeration technicians in the framework of the Brazilian HCFC Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP). The publication illustrates the most important tools and practices used in the installation, maintenance and repair of split air conditioners. Moreover, it offers professional guidance to technicians for the application of best refrigeration practices by providing essential knowledge on the containment of refrigerants.

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Portuguese description

Apostila de Boas Práticas para Sistemas de Ar Condicionado do tipo split

Esta apostila foi elaborada no âmbito do Programa Brasileiro de Eliminação dos HCFCs (PBH) para cursos de treinamento e capacitação de técnicos refrigeristas. A publicação ilustra as mais importantes ferramentas e práticas utilizadas nos serviços de instalação, manutenção e reparo de sistemas de ar condicionado do tipo split e visa oferecer orientação profissional aos técnicos para a aplicação das boas práticas nos serviços relacionados à refrigeração, fornecendo conhecimento essencial para a contenção de fluidos frigoríficos. 

 

Cover Best Practice Guide 1: Leak Control

Best Practice Guide 1: Leak Control

This Best Practice Guide has been prepared in the framework of the Brazilian HCFC Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP) and explains important components of the European framework of regulative requirements for refrigerant emission control. The technical contents demonstrate how to deal with the requirements and point out ways for a successful implementation.

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Portuguese description

Guia de Boas Práticas 1: Controle de Vazamentos

Este Guia de Boas Práticas foi elaborado no âmbito do Programa Brasileiro de Eliminação dos HCFCs (PBH) e aborda importantes componentes, relacionados aos requisitos do regulamento Europeu, para controle da emissão de fluidos frigoríficos para atmosfera. Os conteúdos técnicos apresentados demonstram como lidar com essas exigências e apontam os caminhos para uma implementação bem-sucedida.

 

Cover Best Practice Guide 2: Sealed System Design

Best Practice Guide 2: Sealed System Design

This Best Practice Guide has been prepared in the framework of the Brazilian HCFC Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP) in order to raise awareness of the importance of leak reduction and tries to answer the following questions: What is the nature of refrigerant leaks? What causes them? What can be done through best refrigeration and engineering practices to reduce or eliminate the risk of leaks occurring?

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Portuguese description

Guia de Boas Práticas 2: Caraterísticas de Sistemas de Refrigeração em Condições Seladas

Este Guia de Boas Práticas foi elaborado no âmbito do Programa Brasileiro de Eliminação dos HCFCs (PBH) e tem como objetivo aumentar a conscientização sobre a importância de redução de vazamentos e visa responder as seguintes questões: Qual a natureza dos vazamentos de fluido frigorífico? Qual é a sua causa? O que pode ser feito, por meio das boas práticas na refrigeração nos projetos de engenharia, para reduzir ou eliminar a probabilidade de sua ocorrência?


Cover Best Practice Guide 3: Maintenance of Refrigeration Systems

Best Practice Guide 3: Maintenance of Refrigeration Systems

This Best Practice Guide has been prepared in the framework of the Brazilian HCFC Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP) and addresses important issued related to daily activities of any refrigeration profession, as maintenance, installation, operation and professional end-of-life treatment of RAC systems. Some important examples are given for daily practices, which should be observed by refrigeration technicians.

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Portuguese description

Guia de Boas Práticas 3: Manutenção de Sistemas de Refrigeração

Este Guia de Boas Práticas foi elaborado no âmbito do Programa Brasileiro de Eliminação dos HCFCs (PBH) e aborda importantes pontos referente às atividades diárias de qualquer profissional de refrigeração, como manutenção, instalação, operação e tratamento profissional para o sistema RAC após o final de sua vida útil. São oferecidos exemplos de práticas diárias que devem ser observadas pelos técnicos. 

 


Cover: Management and destruction of existing ozone depleting substances banks

Management and destruction of existing ozone depleting substances banks

This study analyses the management and destruction of ozone depleting substances (ODS), particularly in developing countries. Even though the consumption and production of ODS has been effectively controlled by the Montreal Protocol, accumulated ODS banks in old refrigeration and air conditioning appliances but also in insulation foams and fire-fighting equipment still reach the atmosphere to a large extent. Their management and destruction could not only accelerate the recovery of the ozone layer but also protect the climate as ODS generally have very high global warming potentials.

This study reviews the status quo of ODS bank management, provides an overview of global ODS banks, relevant legislation, technical options for ODS destruction as well as financing and policy mechanisms. It also looks at the different barriers that hinder effective ODS management and destruction.

Climate-friendly Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: A Key Mitigation Option for INDCs

Climate-friendly Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: A Key Mitigation Option for INDCs

The working paper is to inform decision makers involved in Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) preparation on the role that the RAC sector could play in countries’ INDC implementation as a key sector to achieve the goals formulated in the INDC. The paper briefly introduces the latest UNFCCC developments, GHG emission trends and reduction potentials of the RAC sector. Country case studies (on Indonesia and Ghana) that are both characterized by rapidly growing RAC markets help showcase the range of technology options, policies, and measures in transitioning towards a sustainable RAC sector development. Subsequently, the main challenges in transforming the RAC sector to a key GHG mitigation sector are summarized. The paper finally concludes by highlighting aspects that should be considered when integrating climate friendly cooling in national efforts to combat global climate change.

  

  

Emissions and market trends

Green Cooling Technologies
Market trends in selected refrigeration and air conditioning subsectors

The study tracks global market trends of key refrigeration and air conditioning subsectors. The study illustrates the demand and supply side of AC chillers, unitary air-conditioners and mobile air-conditioning and analyses the potential of green technologies in these sectors. It pro­vides an overview of the global value chain for key RAC subsectors and looks closer at how private and public stakeholders as well as the civil society can drive the dynamics towards a wider penetration of green cooling technologies.

 

          

Cover of the handbook

NAMAs in the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam sectors
A technical handbook by GIZ Proklima

This handbook aims to serve policy makers and practitioners in developing countries as a comprehensive guideline for the preparation and implementation of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) in the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam (RAC&F) sectors. To date it is the only comprehensive compendium addressing the RAC&F sectors with respect to NAMAs, or, more generally, cost-effective mitigation actions on a sectoral level.

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Further information

Structure of the handbook
The handbook is divided into ten modules, the ten main aspects of NAMAs in the RAC&F sectors. Each module addresses and guides the user in a step-by-step manner towards the implementation of applicable activities and the application of methodologies and tools. All modules have an executive summary and are structured into three main parts: 1) introduction, 2) methodology and 3) practical application.

The 10 Modules of the Handbook:
1) Inventory
2) Cooling Needs Assessment
3) Technical Options
4) Economic Assessment
5) Mitigation Scenarios
6) Technology Roadmap
7) MRV System
8) Policy & Financial Framework
9) Implementation Plan
10) Co-benefits

How to use the handbook
Working through all ten modules will give the user comprehensive guidance on how to design a NAMA in the RAC&F sectors. All modules contain cross-references to other modules. Every module is conceived as a stand-alone module and offers definitions, methodological insights, recommendations and examples.

This handbook is a ‘living document’. We welcome your feedback!

Brochure 'NAMAs in the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam sectors'

giz2013-en-NAMAs-E-Brochure.pdf (pdf, 2.42 MB)

1) Inventory

giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul1-web.pdf (pdf, 1.29 MB) Annex Modul 1 (pdf, 1.23 MB)

2) Cooling Needs Assessment

giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul2-web.pdf (pdf, 1.84 MB)

3) Technical Options

giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul3-web.pdf (pdf, 1.52 MB) Annex Modul 3 (pdf, 1.20 MB)

4) Economic Assessment

giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul4-web.pdf (pdf, 1.60 MB) Annex Modul 4 (pdf, 1.36 MB)

5) Mitigation Scenarios

giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul5-web.pdf (pdf, 1.39 MB)

6) Technology Roadmap

giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul6-web.pdf (pdf, 1.44 MB)

7) MRV System

giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul7-web.pdf (pdf, 1.32 MB) Annex Modul 7 (pdf, 1.12 MB)

8) Policy & Financial Framework

giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul8.1-web.pdf (pdf, 1.28 MB) giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul8.2-web.pdf (pdf, 1.35 MB)

9) Implementation Plan

giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul9-web.pdf (pdf, 1.27 MB)

10) Co-benefits

giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul10-web.pdf (pdf, 1.31 MB) Annex Modul 10 (pdf, 1.13 MB)

 

 

Installation and servicing of air-conditioners
Installation and Servicing of Air-conditioners

This handbook has been developed for technicians servicing room air-conditioners. It was prepared in the course of trainings under the hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) Phase-Out Management Plans of the Montreal Protocol in India. The handbook provides preliminary and practical information to the technicians that can be applied on day-to-day basis during installation and servicing of air-conditioners. It explains in a simple and easy to understand manner, the principles of air-conditioning. It further provides information on how the refrigerants, if vented into the atmosphere, have an impact on the environment.

Download the publication "Good Practices in Installation and Servicing of Room Air-conditioners"

giz2013-en-air-conditioner-india.pdf (pdf, 4.92 MB)
giz2013-hi-air-conditioner-india.pdf (pdf, 2.15 MB)

 

 

Climate-friendly insulation (XPS foam)
Climate-friendly insulation (XPS foam)

This handbook for engineers, technicians, trainers and policy-makers examines the technical, safety and administrative problems related to the use of flammable blowing agents in the production of extruded polystyrene boards (XPS). The document focuses on production of XPS rather than the design and certification of the XPS boards itself. The explanations, descriptions and examples are specifically focused on safety elements required for a proper production.

Download the publication "Guidelines climate-friendly insulation boards"

giz2012-en-Guidelines-Safety-XPS.pdf (pdf, 1.23 MB)

 

 

Production of room air conditioners

Production of room air conditioners

This handbook addresses engineers, technicians, trainers and policy-makers. It examines the technical, safety and administrative problems related to the use of flammable gases in the production of air conditioning systems.   

Download the publication "Production of room air conditioners"

giz-2012-Guidelines-Safety-AC.pdf (pdf, 2.06 MB)

 

 

Operation of hydrocarbon AC systems
Operation of hydrocarbon AC systems

This conversion guide is intended to assist with the safe conversion of air conditioning systems to use flammable hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants. Converting an air conditioning system from a non-flammable to a flammable refrigerant requires special considerations, which are summarised here.

Download the publication "Operation of hydrocarbon AC systems"

Operation of split air conditioning systems with hydrocarbon refrigerant (pdf, 6.54 MB)
Operación de equipo de aire acondicionado tipo split con hidrocarburos (pdf, 2.83 MB)

 

 

Conversion of domestic refrigerators

Conversion of domestic refrigerators

This guideline aims to provide a general idea of the different steps when planning a conversion from an existing production system of domestic refrigerators to one that uses hydrocarbons, such as isobutane (R600a) or propane (R290), and the important aspects that small- to medium-size manufacturers need to consider. The holistic approach of this guideline makes it a good starting point of information, not only for directors and managers of enterprises responsible for technical aspects, product development, production line and training, but also for consultants, training institutions, teachers, lecturers and technicians.

Download the publication "Conversion of domestic refrigerators"

Refrigerators

Production conversion of domestic refrigerators from halogenated to hydrocarbon refrigerants (pdf, 4.04 MB)
giz2014-10-28-es-guideline-production-conversion-domestic-refrigerators.pdf (pdf, 4.20 MB)

 

 

Natural refrigerants

Natural refrigerants

The handbook contains 31 articles by individual authors covering the following issues: policies and legislation on F-gases and related issues (Part 1), safety concerns and means to overcome (Part 2), a technical assessment of natural refrigerants in different applications (air conditioning, commercial and industrial refrigeration and heat pumps) (Part 3), and case studies by manufacturers and end-users providing insights into market developments and examples of successful conversions to natural refrigerants (Part 4).

Download the publication "Natural refrigerants"

giz2008-en-natural-refrigerants.pdf (pdf, 4.13 MB)

 

 

Natural foam blowing agents
Natural foam blowing agents

GIZ (former GTZ) Proklima has compiled this publication to provide information on natural foam blowing agents as ozone- and climate-friendly alternatives to HCFCs. The first section of the book covers policy-related aspects of technology transition towards natural foam blowing agents and examines the impact legislative changes have on development and adoption of alternative technologies. The second part deals with the use of natural blowing agents in rigid and XPS foam, the conditions for conversion and special technologies. Part 3 comprises case studies from developing countries. The contributions focus on typical challenges that occur when converting production plants to natural foam blowing agents and provide solutions illustrating how these hurdles may be overcome in practice.

Download the publication "natural refrigerants"

giz2009-en-natural-foam-blowing-agents.pdf (pdf, 1.75 MB)

 

 

Good practices in refrigeration
Good practices in refrigeration

This manual should provide professional guidance on how to service and maintain refrigeration systems operating with new technology, e.g. ozone- and climate-friendly alternative refrigerants to CFCs and HCFCs. It addresses essential know-how on containment of HFC refrigerants which have a high global warming potential (GWP) and provides information on the safe use of environmental-friendly natural refrigerants, such as CO2, ammonia or hydrocarbons.

Download the publication "Good practices in refrigeration"

giz2010-en-good-practices-in-refrigeration.pdf (pdf, 8.37 MB)
Buenas prácticas de refrigeración (pdf, 14.56 MB)

 

 

giz-safe-use-hc.jpg
Guidelines for the safe use of hydrocarbon refrigerants

This publication was produced in close cooperation with TUEV SUED to develop a handbook for engineers, technicians, and policy makers that describes safety systems both from a third party perspective and from an implementing agency perspective. It informs in a comprehensive manner about all aspects related to safety while working with hydrocarbon refrigerants, covering infrastructure, systems design, training, production and manufacturing facilities, equipment design and development, working on systems and development, and case studies.

Download the publication "Guidelines for the safe use of hydrocarbon refrigerants"

Contact

Bernhard Siegele
bernhard.siegele@giz.de
Phone: +49 6196 79-1968
Fax: +49 6196 7980-1968


Website and fanpage Brazilian HCFC Phase Out Management Plan (HPMP)

The website “Best Practices in Refrigeration” provides information about current activities for the elimination of HCFCs in Brazil, including the Best Practice Training Programme for refrigeration technicians. The fanpage on facebook “Ozone Layer, Refrigeration and Climate” was launched by the initiative of GIZ PROKLIMA in order to allow for wide discussion of these issues on social networks.

SEARCHING FOR PROKLIMA PUBLICATIONS

All publications by Proklima are to be found in the GIZ publication database. If you do not know the exact title of a document, you may search for 'Proklima' in the Quick Search.