Guideline on the Manual Dismantling of Refrigerators and Air Conditioners: Guiding principles applicable to the Colombian case
This guideline was elaborated within the global project on management and destruction of ODS banks in close cooperation with the Colombian Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development and its Technical Ozone Unit. The document provides a step-by-step guideline on how to manually dismantle refrigerators and ACs in an environmentally safe manner and by taking into account local conditions in Colombia. It addresses e-waste management companies and environmental authorities at regional and local level.
Solar cooling practitioners’ handbook – A Conversion Guide for Technicians, Trainers and Engineers
This book is a practitioners’ guide to successful planning and implementation of solar thermal cooling technologies. It aims to support engineers, technicians and maintenance personnel to understand available technology options and functionality of individual components solar cooling. The book was realized and financed by the project Solar Cooling in Industry and Commerce (SCIC), implemented by GIZ in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment of Jordan and financed by the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety of Germany.
Promoting Food Security and Safety via Cold Chains - Technology options, cooling needs and energy requirements.
The purpose of this concept paper is to present different existing and potential cold chains for food products and to give an overview of existing challenges and possible solutions towards better cold chain coverage, improved cold chain management and reduced food losses in developing countries. The paper aims to serve as a basis for thematic discussion on one field of action to improve food security using climate friendly technologies. Lessons learnt can provide an input for ongoing projects and the development of new projects in the field.
Advancing nationally determined contributions (NDCs) through climate-friendly refrigeration and air conditioning.
This guidance assists policymakers in designing national mitigation strategies for the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam (RAC&F) sector to meet the increasing ambition levels expected in revised NDCs.
By aligning efforts taken under the two relevant international regimes, the UNFCCC and the Montreal Protocol, the RAC&F sector can make a significant contribution towards reaching the 2°C target, or even the 1.5°C target.
Solar Cooling for Industry and Commerce – Study on the Solar Cooling Potential in Jordan
Air conditioning contributes significantly to electricity demand and its use is expected to increase along with economic growth and rising global temperatures. Solar cooling absorption technologies can use up to 75 percent less electricity than conventional compression chillers. Further environmental and climate benefits also result from the use of natural refrigerants (e.g. lithium bromide in the case of an absorption chiller), virtually eliminating direct greenhouse gas emissions from leakages of refrigerants with high global warming potential. This study explores the market potential of solar cooling in Jordan given two scenarios: (1) moderate increase in technology and (2) high market penetration under high energy prices and accelerated phase out of fluorinated gases. The study also elaborates on strategies to overcome existing market barriers for solar cooling such as high upfront investment costs( due to lack in economies of scale), lack of local technology suppliers and specialized technicians, and lack of awareness among policy makers and end users.
Best Practice Handbook for Commercial Refrigeration in Supermarkets
This handbook has been prepared for training courses and capacity building of refrigeration technicians in the framework of the Brazilian HCFC Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP). The publication illustrates the most important tools and practices used in the installation, operation, maintenance and repair of commercial refrigeration systems in supermarkets. Moreover, it offers professional guidance to technicians for the application of best refrigeration practices by providing essential knowledge on the containment of refrigerants.
Apostila de Boas Práticas para Refrigeração em Supermercados
Esta apostila foi elaborada no âmbito do Programa Brasileiro de Eliminação dos HCFCs (PBH) para cursos de treinamento e capacitação de técnicos refrigeristas. A publicação ilustra as mais importantes ferramentas e práticas utilizadas nos serviços de instalação, operação, manutenção e reparo de sistemas de refrigeração comercial de supermercados e visa oferecer orientação profissional aos técnicos que trabalham no setor de supermercados para a aplicação das boas práticas nos serviços relacionados à refrigeração, fornecendo conhecimento essencial para a contenção de fluidos frigoríficos.
Best Practice Handbook for Split Air Conditioning Systems
This handbook has been prepared for training courses and capacity building of refrigeration technicians in the framework of the Brazilian HCFC Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP). The publication illustrates the most important tools and practices used in the installation, maintenance and repair of split air conditioners. Moreover, it offers professional guidance to technicians for the application of best refrigeration practices by providing essential knowledge on the containment of refrigerants.
Apostila de Boas Práticas para Sistemas de Ar Condicionado do tipo split
Esta apostila foi elaborada no âmbito do Programa Brasileiro de Eliminação dos HCFCs (PBH) para cursos de treinamento e capacitação de técnicos refrigeristas. A publicação ilustra as mais importantes ferramentas e práticas utilizadas nos serviços de instalação, manutenção e reparo de sistemas de ar condicionado do tipo split e visa oferecer orientação profissional aos técnicos para a aplicação das boas práticas nos serviços relacionados à refrigeração, fornecendo conhecimento essencial para a contenção de fluidos frigoríficos.
Best Practice Guide 1: Leak Control
This Best Practice Guide has been prepared in the framework of the Brazilian HCFC Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP) and explains important components of the European framework of regulative requirements for refrigerant emission control. The technical contents demonstrate how to deal with the requirements and point out ways for a successful implementation.
Guia de Boas Práticas 1: Controle de Vazamentos
Este Guia de Boas Práticas foi elaborado no âmbito do Programa Brasileiro de Eliminação dos HCFCs (PBH) e aborda importantes componentes, relacionados aos requisitos do regulamento Europeu, para controle da emissão de fluidos frigoríficos para atmosfera. Os conteúdos técnicos apresentados demonstram como lidar com essas exigências e apontam os caminhos para uma implementação bem-sucedida.
Best Practice Guide 2: Sealed System Design
This Best Practice Guide has been prepared in the framework of the Brazilian HCFC Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP) in order to raise awareness of the importance of leak reduction and tries to answer the following questions: What is the nature of refrigerant leaks? What causes them? What can be done through best refrigeration and engineering practices to reduce or eliminate the risk of leaks occurring?
Guia de Boas Práticas 2: Caraterísticas de Sistemas de Refrigeração em Condições Seladas
Este Guia de Boas Práticas foi elaborado no âmbito do Programa Brasileiro de Eliminação dos HCFCs (PBH) e tem como objetivo aumentar a conscientização sobre a importância de redução de vazamentos e visa responder as seguintes questões: Qual a natureza dos vazamentos de fluido frigorífico? Qual é a sua causa? O que pode ser feito, por meio das boas práticas na refrigeração nos projetos de engenharia, para reduzir ou eliminar a probabilidade de sua ocorrência?
Best Practice Guide 3: Maintenance of Refrigeration Systems
This Best Practice Guide has been prepared in the framework of the Brazilian HCFC Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP) and addresses important issued related to daily activities of any refrigeration profession, as maintenance, installation, operation and professional end-of-life treatment of RAC systems. Some important examples are given for daily practices, which should be observed by refrigeration technicians.
Guia de Boas Práticas 3: Manutenção de Sistemas de Refrigeração
Este Guia de Boas Práticas foi elaborado no âmbito do Programa Brasileiro de Eliminação dos HCFCs (PBH) e aborda importantes pontos referente às atividades diárias de qualquer profissional de refrigeração, como manutenção, instalação, operação e tratamento profissional para o sistema RAC após o final de sua vida útil. São oferecidos exemplos de práticas diárias que devem ser observadas pelos técnicos.
Management and destruction of existing ozone depleting substances banks
This study analyses the management and destruction of ozone depleting substances (ODS), particularly in developing countries. Even though the consumption and production of ODS has been effectively controlled by the Montreal Protocol, accumulated ODS banks in old refrigeration and air conditioning appliances but also in insulation foams and fire-fighting equipment still reach the atmosphere to a large extent. Their management and destruction could not only accelerate the recovery of the ozone layer but also protect the climate as ODS generally have very high global warming potentials.
This study reviews the status quo of ODS bank management, provides an overview of global ODS banks, relevant legislation, technical options for ODS destruction as well as financing and policy mechanisms. It also looks at the different barriers that hinder effective ODS management and destruction.
Climate-friendly Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: A Key Mitigation Option for INDCs
The working paper is to inform decision makers involved in Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) preparation on the role that the RAC sector could play in countries’ INDC implementation as a key sector to achieve the goals formulated in the INDC. The paper briefly introduces the latest UNFCCC developments, GHG emission trends and reduction potentials of the RAC sector. Country case studies (on Indonesia and Ghana) that are both characterized by rapidly growing RAC markets help showcase the range of technology options, policies, and measures in transitioning towards a sustainable RAC sector development. Subsequently, the main challenges in transforming the RAC sector to a key GHG mitigation sector are summarized. The paper finally concludes by highlighting aspects that should be considered when integrating climate friendly cooling in national efforts to combat global climate change.
Green Cooling Technologies
Market trends in selected refrigeration and air conditioning subsectors
The study tracks global market trends of key refrigeration and air conditioning subsectors. The study illustrates the demand and supply side of AC chillers, unitary air-conditioners and mobile air-conditioning and analyses the potential of green technologies in these sectors. It provides an overview of the global value chain for key RAC subsectors and looks closer at how private and public stakeholders as well as the civil society can drive the dynamics towards a wider penetration of green cooling technologies.
NAMAs in the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam sectors
A technical handbook by GIZ Proklima
This handbook aims to serve policy makers and practitioners in developing countries as a comprehensive guideline for the preparation and implementation of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) in the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam (RAC&F) sectors. To date it is the only comprehensive compendium addressing the RAC&F sectors with respect to NAMAs, or, more generally, cost-effective mitigation actions on a sectoral level.
Structure of the handbook
The handbook is divided into ten modules, the ten main aspects of NAMAs in the RAC&F sectors. Each module addresses and guides the user in a step-by-step manner towards the implementation of applicable activities and the application of methodologies and tools. All modules have an executive summary and are structured into three main parts: 1) introduction, 2) methodology and 3) practical application.
The 10 Modules of the Handbook:
2) Cooling Needs Assessment
3) Technical Options
4) Economic Assessment
5) Mitigation Scenarios
6) Technology Roadmap
7) MRV System
8) Policy & Financial Framework
9) Implementation Plan
How to use the handbook
Working through all ten modules will give the user comprehensive guidance on how to design a NAMA in the RAC&F sectors. All modules contain cross-references to other modules. Every module is conceived as a stand-alone module and offers definitions, methodological insights, recommendations and examples.
This handbook is a ‘living document’. We welcome your feedback!giz2013-en-NAMAs-E-Brochure.pdf (pdf, 2.42 MB) giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul1-web.pdf (pdf, 1.29 MB) Annex Modul 1 (pdf, 1.23 MB) giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul2-web.pdf (pdf, 1.84 MB) giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul3-web.pdf (pdf, 1.52 MB) Annex Modul 3 (pdf, 1.20 MB) giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul4-web.pdf (pdf, 1.60 MB) Annex Modul 4 (pdf, 1.36 MB) giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul5-web.pdf (pdf, 1.39 MB) giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul6-web.pdf (pdf, 1.44 MB) giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul7-web.pdf (pdf, 1.32 MB) Annex Modul 7 (pdf, 1.12 MB) giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul8.1-web.pdf (pdf, 1.28 MB) giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul8.2-web.pdf (pdf, 1.35 MB) giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul9-web.pdf (pdf, 1.27 MB) giz2013-en-NAMAs-Modul10-web.pdf (pdf, 1.31 MB) Annex Modul 10 (pdf, 1.13 MB)
This handbook has been developed for technicians servicing room air-conditioners. It was prepared in the course of trainings under the hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) Phase-Out Management Plans of the Montreal Protocol in India. The handbook provides preliminary and practical information to the technicians that can be applied on day-to-day basis during installation and servicing of air-conditioners. It explains in a simple and easy to understand manner, the principles of air-conditioning. It further provides information on how the refrigerants, if vented into the atmosphere, have an impact on the environment.
Download the publication "Good Practices in Installation and Servicing of Room Air-conditioners"giz2013-en-air-conditioner-india.pdf (pdf, 4.92 MB)
This handbook for engineers, technicians, trainers and policy-makers examines the technical, safety and administrative problems related to the use of flammable blowing agents in the production of extruded polystyrene boards (XPS). The document focuses on production of XPS rather than the design and certification of the XPS boards itself. The explanations, descriptions and examples are specifically focused on safety elements required for a proper production.
Download the publication "Guidelines climate-friendly insulation boards"giz2012-en-Guidelines-Safety-XPS.pdf (pdf, 1.23 MB)
Production of room air conditioners
This handbook addresses engineers, technicians, trainers and policy-makers. It examines the technical, safety and administrative problems related to the use of flammable gases in the production of air conditioning systems.
Download the publication "Production of room air conditioners"giz-2012-Guidelines-Safety-AC.pdf (pdf, 2.06 MB)
This conversion guide is intended to assist with the safe conversion of air conditioning systems to use flammable hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants. Converting an air conditioning system from a non-flammable to a flammable refrigerant requires special considerations, which are summarised here.
Download the publication "Operation of hydrocarbon AC systems"Operation of split air conditioning systems with hydrocarbon refrigerant (pdf, 6.54 MB)
Conversion of domestic refrigerators
This guideline aims to provide a general idea of the different steps when planning a conversion from an existing production system of domestic refrigerators to one that uses hydrocarbons, such as isobutane (R600a) or propane (R290), and the important aspects that small- to medium-size manufacturers need to consider. The holistic approach of this guideline makes it a good starting point of information, not only for directors and managers of enterprises responsible for technical aspects, product development, production line and training, but also for consultants, training institutions, teachers, lecturers and technicians.
Download the publication "Conversion of domestic refrigerators"Production conversion of domestic refrigerators from halogenated to hydrocarbon refrigerants (pdf, 4.04 MB)
The handbook contains 31 articles by individual authors covering the following issues: policies and legislation on F-gases and related issues (Part 1), safety concerns and means to overcome (Part 2), a technical assessment of natural refrigerants in different applications (air conditioning, commercial and industrial refrigeration and heat pumps) (Part 3), and case studies by manufacturers and end-users providing insights into market developments and examples of successful conversions to natural refrigerants (Part 4).
Download the publication "Natural refrigerants"giz2008-en-natural-refrigerants.pdf (pdf, 4.13 MB)
GIZ (former GTZ) Proklima has compiled this publication to provide information on natural foam blowing agents as ozone- and climate-friendly alternatives to HCFCs. The first section of the book covers policy-related aspects of technology transition towards natural foam blowing agents and examines the impact legislative changes have on development and adoption of alternative technologies. The second part deals with the use of natural blowing agents in rigid and XPS foam, the conditions for conversion and special technologies. Part 3 comprises case studies from developing countries. The contributions focus on typical challenges that occur when converting production plants to natural foam blowing agents and provide solutions illustrating how these hurdles may be overcome in practice.
Download the publication "natural refrigerants"giz2009-en-natural-foam-blowing-agents.pdf (pdf, 1.75 MB)
This manual should provide professional guidance on how to service and maintain refrigeration systems operating with new technology, e.g. ozone- and climate-friendly alternative refrigerants to CFCs and HCFCs. It addresses essential know-how on containment of HFC refrigerants which have a high global warming potential (GWP) and provides information on the safe use of environmental-friendly natural refrigerants, such as CO2, ammonia or hydrocarbons.
Download the publication "Good practices in refrigeration"giz2010-en-good-practices-in-refrigeration.pdf (pdf, 8.37 MB)
This publication was produced in close cooperation with TUEV SUED to develop a handbook for engineers, technicians, and policy makers that describes safety systems both from a third party perspective and from an implementing agency perspective. It informs in a comprehensive manner about all aspects related to safety while working with hydrocarbon refrigerants, covering infrastructure, systems design, training, production and manufacturing facilities, equipment design and development, working on systems and development, and case studies.
Download the publication "Guidelines for the safe use of hydrocarbon refrigerants"
Phone: +49 6196 79-1968
Fax: +49 6196 7980-1968
Website and fanpage Brazilian HCFC Phase Out Management Plan (HPMP)
The website “Best Practices in Refrigeration” provides information about current activities for the elimination of HCFCs in Brazil, including the Best Practice Training Programme for refrigeration technicians. The fanpage on facebook “Ozone Layer, Refrigeration and Climate” was launched by the initiative of GIZ PROKLIMA in order to allow for wide discussion of these issues on social networks.
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All publications by Proklima are to be found in the GIZ publication database. If you do not know the exact title of a document, you may search for 'Proklima' in the Quick Search.