National Solid Waste Management Program (NSWMP)/EU Green

National Solid Waste Management Program/EU Green

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  • Cofinancier

    The European Union

  • Country
  • Lead executing agency


  • Overall term

    2022 to 2026

  • Products and expertise

    Climate, environment, management of natural resources

Waste containers stacked in rows of two.


With approximately 102 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most densely populated country in the Middle East and one of the highest populated countries in Africa. It generates 100 million tonnes of waste per year (including 20.7 million tonnes of municipal waste). However, the level of waste collection varies between 40 to 85 per cent in urban areas and 0–35 per cent in rural areas.

The government has clearly positioned this issue as a political priority, among other things by passing the waste management law (202/2020). Its reform process aims at establishing a climate-sensitive waste management system and transforming to a circular economy. The Waste Management Regulatory Authority (WMRA) has been set up to implement sectoral strategies and most of the relevant strategies are already in place. However, there is still a certain lack of institutional and personnel capabilities for successful implementation, as well as a lack of coherent regulations to stimulate “green” private sector investment.


State institutions, private companies and non-governmental organisations have stepped up their efforts to promote a climate-friendly waste management and circular economy in Egypt.

A Waste Transfer and Sorting station.


The project follows a multi-level approach, which proceeds as follows:

At macro level

  • assisting the relevant government bodies in the institutional development and implementation of their strategies,
  • working to transform from a linear, resource and climate-intensive economy into a circular one,
  • taking into account the climate aspect of these measures to leverage mitigation and adaption potential and mainstream climate-change aspects into sector policies.

At meso level

  • counselling and training the relevant government employees to perform their mandate and tasks in a manner targeted towards the stated reform goals,
  • enabling green entrepreneurs and civil society organisations to implement climate-sensitive circular economy initiatives.

Last update: April 2023

Piled up waste is being recycled.