Transboundary water management with the Mekong River Commission
Title: Transboundary water management with the Mekong River Commission
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Country: Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam
Lead executing agency: Mekong River Commission (MRC)
Overall term: 2010 to 2017
The Lower Mekong Basin is crucial to the livelihood of its more than 60 million inhabitants. More than two thirds of the population live directly from agriculture and fisheries, and are therefore wholly dependent on the Mekong’s water resources. The river’s economic significance is particularly great for those who live directly on its banks, as in many cases it secures their food base. Furthermore, with its potential for transport, tourism and energy, the river forms the basis for socioeconomic development in all the riparian states.
However, the Mekong Basin faces numerous challenges that threaten the sustainable development of the region. Population growth and the ever-greater pressure these places on the river’s resources pose an increasing threat to the Mekong, especially through the ongoing expansion of hydropower, logging, intensified agriculture and the extraction of mineral resources. Moreover, the Mekong region is among the areas in the world most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, and is already severely affected by it. Today, the regular occurrence of floods has drastically increased the vulnerability of people living alongside the river, and this is set to get worse.
In 1995, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Viet Nam established the Mekong River Commission (MRC) as a means of addressing the development problems of the Lower Mekong Basin collectively. Since then, the Commission has done much to improve the sustainable management of the water resource. Faced by the intensifying and newly emerging challenges, the capacity of the MRC to do its job is constantly being called into question. Is it capable of addressing the core problems in the river basin effectively and competently, especially with regard to climate change and hydropower development?
The MRC provides effective and competent support to its member states in their efforts to address sustainably the challenges facing the river basin.
GIZ is supporting the MRC in the environmentally friendly and pro-poor development of hydropower and in its efforts to protect local people from the adverse impacts of climate change. The programme also supports the ongoing institutional transition of the MRC in various areas, such as the structural, financial and staff reforms. It works directly with expert staff and managers in the MRC Secretariat and, as far as possible, encourages the involvement of the national Mekong committees and each country’s ministries for water, energy and environment in its work.
Results achieved so far
Since its formation, the MRC has generated a large body of knowledge. It has established procedures for the development of sustainable water resources and set up a regional water diplomacy platform. More specifically, with the support of the programme, the Commission has made progress in a number of areas:
- Hydropower development plans in the four countries have been assessed for their sustainability. This involved a newly developed assessment and stakeholder engagement tool.
- A network of over 30 universities has been established in the region. This has enabled them to integrate international best practices for the sustainable use of hydropower in their curricula.
- The impacts of climate change on water and related resources in the Mekong basin have been analysed, and a system has been developed to monitor the state of climate change in the region, as well as adaptations to it.
- A new streamlined organisational structure has been adopted by MRC. It has downsized its staff according to its core functions, and has revised its human resources and financial policies and procedures. River basin management activities are being transferred to the member countries, according to their financial and technical capacity