Preventing and fighting corruption
Title: Preventing and fighting corruption in Indonesia
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Lead executing agency: Indonesian Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK)
Overall term: 2016 to 2018
Corruption permeates almost all areas of state action in Indonesia and is hindering the country’s economic, democratic and social development. In 2003, the Indonesian Government set up the national Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) with a broad mandate for investigation, prosecution, corruption prevention, coordination, supervision and monitoring. KPK has demonstrated a steady and impressive success record since its inception.
Despite a high degree of professionalism and a considerable increase in human resources (currently 1,400 staff members), KPK is not yet having a sufficient influence on other state institutions. Especially with regard to corruption prevention measures, KPK needs to adopt a more systematic approach and to coordinate its activities better with other government and civil society actors.
While some donors primarily support the prosecution of corruption, cooperation between Indonesia and Germany focuses on prevention.
In cooperation with other government agencies and civil society actors, the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) successfully implements measures to prevent corruption in selected sectors as well as in provinces and municipalities.
The project supports corruption prevention within the national government, but also in districts and provinces. To this end, it works together with numerous stakeholders such as non-governmental organisations, authorities, agencies and business associations.
Public authorities have to work together in order to effectively prevent corruption. To this end, the project supports the establishment of coordination mechanisms to bring together decision makers in various domains. In so doing, it creates the conditions needed to enable coordinated corruption prevention at all state levels. The Directorate for Research and Development of the Corruption Eradication Commission produces specific studies in various fields in which it analyses the risk of corruption in a variety of processes within public administrations. It then uses the results as a basis for formulating recommendations as to how susceptibility to corruption can be mitigated. Specialist staff and managers of the Directorate receive training on how to prepare sector analyses in order to empower and increase the options available to the Directorate and KPK. The project team promotes cooperation between KPK and other state institutions. It advises them on the development of training modules for the prevention of corruption.
The aim is to use civil society groups as multipliers for KPK’s efforts to raise awareness in initiatives to prevent corruption in the forestry and education sectors as well as in municipalities and provinces. Their medium-term goal is to detect corruption and make incidents public. To this end, the project cooperates with non-governmental organisations.
KPK’s first anti-corruption strategy was fully implemented between 2011 and 2015. Its successor strategy (2016–2020) places a particular focus on preventive work.
GIZ started working with KPK in the field of anti-corruption in 2007, meaning a firm foundation has already been established that the project is able to build on. The partners can already look back on considerable achievements, as attested by the following examples:
A central training unit was created within KPK that designs and organises internal and external training courses. A total of 34 KPK staff have been trained as coaches and have raised awareness among more than 2,500 training participants since mid-2014. Educational material and training modules on corruption prevention ensure that the topic is assigned a high level of importance early on in the training of civil servants and that it is factored into the competence standards applicable to the staff of forestry authorities.
A national integrity system is now in place. This involved introducing whistleblower systems that handle over 2,000 complaints each year as well as setting up a portal for the publication of wealth declarations by politicians, government representatives and civil servants. More than 35,000 users access this information each month.
In three pilot provinces, the project is currently supporting the establishment of various formats for dialogue between KPK and civil society, and is developing training modules for civil society actors. By improving cooperation between KPK and non-governmental supervisory structures, it has been possible to reveal and remedy the misuse of public power. For instance, in Riau province, the local population was able to take action against mismanagement in forestry and put pressure on the local police force to prosecute those responsible for starting forest fires. Civil society organisations used social media such as Twitter in order to inform the population about the use of budget funds.
The JAGA smartphone app has been up and running since December 2016. It allows the local population in three regions to obtain an overview of schools, health care centres and citizens’ offices, to evaluate them and to draw attention to any irregularities. At present, the JAGA app has data from 33,800 high schools, 684 hospitals, 10,051 health care centres and information on 121 different licensing procedures at citizens’ offices.
A radio station (since 2013) and a television channel (since 2014) broadcast information related to corruption nationwide.