Forests and climate change programme (FORCLIME)

Programme description

Title: Forests and climate change programme (FORCLIME)
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Country: Indonesia
Lead executing agency: Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF)
Overall term: 2009 to 2016

Indonesia. The forest is both the habitat and a source of livelihood for the Dayak people. © GIZ


Indonesia is blessed with some of the world’s most extensive and biologically diverse tropical forests. However, exploitative and unsustainable forest management practices, illegal logging and forest fires have severely depleted the forested area. Every year, around one million hectares of natural forest in Indonesia fall victim to the expansion of plantations and mining. Deforestation and the degradation of forests are the cause of Indonesia’s high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The forestry sector therefore plays a key role in the country’s climate change mitigation efforts. Following Indonesia’s decentralisation reforms, however, the division of responsibilities for forest management remains unclear. The necessary policies and institutional framework are missing and there is a lack of capacities and resources.

Indonesia. Remote natural forest reserves in Kalimantan. © GIZ


Public and private stakeholders have improved the frameworks, methods and services required for sustainable forest management, conservation of biological diversity and reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation using conflict-sensitive instruments. In the longer term, GHG emissions from the forest sector are reduced and livelihoods are improved in poor rural communities.


The FORCLIME programme consists of six components:

  1. National and subnational regulatory framework (advisory services on forestry and climate policy)
    GIZ is supporting the Ministry of Environment and Forestry in developing and putting into practice an improved regulatory and institutional framework, which should enable sustainable forest management and the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+).
  2. Sustainable forest management and REDD+
    As part of Indonesia’s reform of the forestry sector, FORCLIME is supporting the development of forest management units, in particular by training the personnel and drafting management and business plans within the context of climate change mitigation/REDD+, good governance, community participation and wood-based renewable energy.
  3. Sustainable forest management in cooperation with the private sector
    The programme aims to promote sustainable forest management, for instance by supporting private forestry businesses in Kalimantan in gaining Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification.
  4. Sustainable economic development (green economy)
    FORCLIME is assisting relevant actors in Indonesia in developing financial incentive systems for sustainable resource management in forests (green economy). Projects are being implemented in pilot districts with a view to creating better living conditions for the communities. These include ecotourism and agroforestry projects.
  5. Support for training institutions
    FORCLIME is working with training centres run by the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry to develop practical, needs-based professional training courses. The aim is to professionalise the work of the forestry authorities, particularly in relation to sustainable forest management, climate change mitigation/REDD+, biodiversity conservation and conflict-sensitive planning.
  6. Integration of biodiversity conservation
    Based on the Biodiversity Action Plan for Indonesia, FORCLIME is supporting the systematic integration of biodiversity conservation into forest management units and the reform of the national system of protected areas.


The following outcomes have been achieved through development cooperation:

  • GIZ supported the Ministry of Environment and Forestry in building up resources for the reform of Indonesia’s forestry sector at ministerial level as well as in the administration, forest management units and communities. This led to greater transparency, participation in planning processes and more efficient action.
  • The issues of forestry sector reform (establishment of forest management units) and climate change mitigation were incorporated into the National Medium Term Development Plan (RP JMN 2015-2019) and serve as a basis for the ministry to plan activities at national and subnational level.
  • Within the project’s three pilot districts, district-wide carbon maps were created using remote sensing data and inventory data, and will serve as the basis for climate change mitigation activities (REDD+, nationally appropriate mitigation actions, low-emission development strategies).
  • The Ministry of Environment and Forestry was supported in the creation of a national REDD+ safeguards information system (SIS).
  • Within the project’s three pilot districts, forest management units were legally established and management plans were drafted.
  • In two districts, the development of value chains for products such as forest honey and cacao was supported with training in value chain assessment and market access. This has substantially increased the income of the participating farmers.
  • A strategic plan for the national Heart of Borneo (HoB) Initiative was produced in close cooperation with WWF Indonesia.
  • Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry has developed medium and long-term strategic plans for the creation of competence standards for the personnel in forest management units, and for other important components that link forest management with GHG emission reduction targets.