Forests and climate change programme (FORCLIME)

Programme description

Title: Forests and climate change programme (FORCLIME)
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Country: Indonesia
Lead executing agency: Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF)
Overall term: 2009 to 2020

Indonesia. The forest is both the habitat and a source of livelihood for the Dayak people. © GIZ


Indonesia is blessed with some of the world’s most extensive and biologically diverse tropical forests. However, exploitative and unsustainable forest management practices, illegal logging and forest fires have severely depleted the forested area. While deforestation rates have dropped continuously over the last decade, the total gross deforestation rate in 2016/17 still amounts to roughly 480,000 hectares. Deforestation and the degradation of forests are one of the main contributors of Indonesia’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as stipulated in the national climate change policy. The forestry sector therefore plays a key role in the country’s climate change mitigation efforts in the future. Following its decentralisation reforms in 2014, Indonesia’s division of responsibilities for forest management among its central and local authorities has changed, giving the provincial level the main role in forest governance. The necessary policies and institutional framework for this reform are being readjusted, but there remains a lack of capacities and resources. It is not sensible for public and private actors to make use of current and emerging forest conservation and climate protection approaches due to the shortcomings in both the political and institutional sectors. Furthermore, the capacities for planning and implementing relevant strategies and methods are still inadequate.

However, the Ministry of Forestry has successfully completed the development of national strategies in the form of the National Forestry Plan RKTN 2011-2030 and the strategic National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2015-2019) for the forestry sector to systematically address these issues. The German Indonesian Forest and Climate Change Programme is supporting and providing technical assistance in the implementation of the forest reforms shaping the future of Indonesian forest policies.

Indonesia. Remote natural forest reserves in Kalimantan. © GIZ


The legal and institutional framework in the areas of forest management, biodiversity conservation and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector is improved. In the long term, improved forest governance will reduce GHG emissions from the forestry sector and better the livelihoods and capacities of people living in and around forests.


The project consists of three Strategic Areas:

  • Strategic Area 1 - National and Sub-national Policy Framework: provides policy advice and supports on FMU development, Climate change development, REDD+ development and forest fire prevention policies at national, provincial and district levels. Aiming at improving policy and regulation development in accordance with the national climate goals (NDC), the principles of “good governance” in the forest sector and the biodiversity conservation goals. 
  • Strategic Area 2 – Forest Management Unit development: supports the establishment and development of FMUs in Indonesia at the national, provincial and local levels. Mainly focuses on the development of policies relevant for FMU development and capacity building, at the local level supports the implementation of FMU design, planning and management. Actively supports the development of four Model FMUs in Malinau in North Kalimantan, Berau Districts in East Kalimantan, Kapuas Hulu District in West Kalimantan and Sigi District in Central Sulawesi Province.
  • Strategic Area 3: Human Capacity Development (HCD): provides assistance on human resource capacity development at the national and sub- national levels in order to support sustainable forest management which contributes to the benefit and welfare of communities as well the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector in Indonesia.

The project works in close collaboration with Financial Cooperation measures implemented by the German Development Bank (KfW).

In addition:
Central Sulawesi Province Support: provides assistance in promoting and implementing an integrated management system for the Lore Lindu Biosphere Reserve. Focuses on supporting the implementation of the biosphere concept, forest management units, community forests, good agricultural practices and sustainable development of villages within the biosphere reserve.


The following outcomes have been achieved through development cooperation:

  • Through the support of GIZ the Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) a long and medium term strategy (Renstra) 2015 - 2019 has been developed in a participatory way and Key Performance Indicators were developed to monitor the implementation. In addition to these improvements, it was gender-mainstreamed and the auditors of the Inspection Directorate trained to monitor the adherence. MoEF received acknowledgement and appreciation from the President of Indonesia in 2016 through an award for Gender Mainstreaming in the Government.
  • In recent years GIZ has made substantial and innovative contributions towards developing the FMUs, which has resulted in greater transparency, stronger participation in planning processes, and more efficient action. Recently, Indonesia has legally established 697 FMUs, which covered around 100 million hectares. 
  • MoEF has granted seven villages in the pilot districts the right to use the local forests. This has improved the position of the local communities in terms of land rights.
  • In a Public Private Partnership (PPP) with a private company, the chocolate from Malinau’s demonstration plots are marketed as “Kalimantan” chocolate in Jakarta and beyond.
  • Worldbank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) has selected FORCLIME’s pilot province East Kalimantan as pilot area. FORCLIME is part of the local steering committee The FCPF initiative will ultimately result in performance-based payments by the Worldbank for forest protection in East Kalimantan.
  • FORCLIME has supported the establishment of the conflict resolution desk (Desk Resolusi Konflik Lahan - DRKL) in Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan in 2017.The DRKL is aimed to strengthen coordination and mediation of forest and land related conflicts.
  • FORCLIME presented recommendations for setting up a national forest carbon project registry. The Forest Reference Level (FREL) in Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan in line with the national FREL has been developed and officially enacted.
  • In close cooperation with FMUs, the program supported local communities in preparation of social forestry schemes aiming on sustainable forest management and independent forest based business activities. This has improved rural livelihood and facilitated the improvement of local agroforestry practices by means of consultation, training and support of organisational development for farmers and other stakeholders. 
  • Providing direct training and capacity building for the three pilot FMUs like mapping, border demarcation and institutional set-up as well as for management activities in line with national policies and relevant plans is provided.
  • FORCLIME has conducted short-term trainings on various topics (i.e. sustainable forest management, planning development, etc.) to support the Indonesian government’s programme on forest administration reform, i.e. the Forest Management Unit Development. 442 staff representing government officials and CSOs at national and subnational level have been trained in 2017, about 30 per cent of the participants were female.
  • FORCLIME contributes to concrete local sustainable land management in the context of agroforestry demonstration plots by local farmers at the pilot districts, resulting in. 16.5 hectares of agricultural land in West Kalimantan being managed more sustainably via agroforestry practices.
  • Around 2,500 citizens participated in municipal, regional, national political consensus-building and decision-making processes with support from the project. FORCLIME focuses on the support of planning activities in cooperation with the Ministry of Forestry and Environment on national and subnational level. FORCLIME also supports conflict resolution activities and the establishment of social forestry schemes on district level.
  • About 300,000 people have improved their access to state administrative services due to FORCLIME interventions in support of the establishment of local Forest Management units. FORCLIME focuses on improving the access of the population to administrative services in forest and land related sectors, such as supporting the establishment of village forests and the overall management of forests on local and regional level, as well as policy advice on national level.
  • As a result of FORCLIME assistance, around two million hectares of forest have been managed using sustainable forest management practices within the FMU pilots.
  • FORCLIME contributes to a better management of protected areas approximately 200,000 hectares in the UNESCO MAB biosphere reserve Lore Lindu, Central Sulawesi.
  • Around 1.3 million people have benefited as a result of FORCLIME’s contribution to preserving ecosystems and their services.
  • FORCLIME supports the sustainable management of the biosphere reserve Lore Lindu, as well as sustainable and future oriented practices to improve forest ecosystem services.
  • The staff of the Forest Management unit Kubu Raya consisting of 46 people, used improved processes and methods in forest fire prevention to contribute to climate change adaptation in Indonesia.