Policy advice for environment and climate change (PAKLIM)
Title: Policy Advice for Environment and Climate Change (PAKLIM)
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Lead executing agency: Indonesian State Ministry of Environment (MoE)
Overall term: 2009 to 2015
Indonesia is one of the world’s largest emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG); at the same time, the country is severely affected by the effects of climate change. To mitigate what is still a growing problem, in 2008 Indonesia announced plans to reduce its GHG emissions by 26 per cent by 2020, with international help possibly even by 41 per cent. However, the country has only just begun to plan and implement its GHG mitigation strategies. Its industries are also not making sufficient use of their potential to use energy more efficiently. There is still no general sense of how important it is to raise awareness among the population, notably the younger generation, through environmental and climate education.
The government, municipalities, industrial enterprises and civil society groups are carrying out new, systematically planned climate strategies. These aim to reduce GHG emissions, improve living conditions, make industrial energy use more efficient and help the country adapt to climate change.
The PAKLIM programme (Policy Advice for Environment and Climate Change) supports the Indonesian Government in planning and implementing its climate strategies. PAKLIM consists of four components:
Climate policy advice at national level: The programme is helping to improve the policy framework for the introduction of climate protection measures. This includes developing and introducing national strategies for climate change adaptation and GHG reduction. Support is also given for the creation of an internationally recognised measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) system, and for the conceptual development of new business and financial incentives.
GHG reduction and adaptation to climate change in provinces and cities: The programme is assisting Indonesian municipalities in designing and implementing efficient models for reducing emissions. Climate change action plans are being developed and funding is being made available to realise them.
GHG reduction and improved energy efficiency in industry: The programme is initiating new networks and strengthening existing partnerships with private industry, private-sector associations and chambers of commerce. It promotes the mutually supportive collaboration with private industry using a number of different financing mechanisms, such as development partnerships with the private sector, as well as through the preparation of nationally appropriate mitigation actions, or NAMAs.
Environmental/climate education: Climate change cannot be curbed through legislation alone. A change in mindset has to be initiated throughout the entire population, notably the younger generation. Since early 2013 the programme has been supporting the introduction of a Green School concept. Pilot projects are to be planned and implemented in schools that play a role in achieving Indonesia’s CO2 reduction targets. These pilot projects are to be included in the curricula and modules are to be developed for use in the classroom and for continued professional training for teachers on subjects such as energy efficiency, renewable energies and sustainable development. Equal importance is placed on involving local authorities and supporting dialogue between schools and local authorities.
Results achieved so far
The project has supported the government, municipalities, industrial enterprises, schools and local authorities in implementing the objectives of the new climate strategies: GHG reduction, improved living conditions, more efficient use of energy and resources in industry and schools, a better understanding of using new technologies, and more advanced adaptation to climate change.
In May 2009, Indonesia introduced the Technology Needs Assessment, which it had produced with the assistance of PAKLIM, as a reference document in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations.
The Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap (ICCSR) was published in late March 2010. Developed with support from GIZ, this document covers a timescale of 20 years and provides strategic guidance for Indonesia’s climate policies.
Working with the State Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS), the programme has helped develop a national strategy for the introduction of mitigation measures in relevant sectors to achieve Indonesia’s targets for GHG emissions reduction. The main elements of this strategy are found in the guidelines on implementing the National Mitigation Action Plan (RAN-GRK), which were likewise drawn up jointly with BAPPENAS. With assistance from PAKLIM, the Ministry of National Development Planning is currently setting up a secretariat that will support the relevant ministries and provincial authorities in preparing nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and implementing the RAN-GRK.
The RAN-GRK secretariat that was set up jointly with BAPPENAS and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) uses the RAN-GRK guidelines to assist provinces in developing climate protection plans and the associated reporting structures.
Partnerships have been established with ten cities across Indonesia for the development of climate change action plans.
Insights gained through development partnerships with OSRAM and Adidas concerning more energy-efficient street lighting and climate-friendly supply chains have been successfully implemented and scaled up. Attention is now focused on the sustainable management of industrial zones and more energy-efficient textile production. The current projects are expected to deliver CO2 reductions, best practices and professional training to raise the number of skilled workers in Indonesia, amongst other things.
Under a cofinancing arrangement with the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), climate change vulnerability assessments have been carried out in three regions of Indonesia.
The urban climate change action plans have produced a first set of GHG reduction measures, one of them involving the use of energy-efficient technologies in cities. Several municipalities and national agencies, such as the Ministry of Energy, have recognised the potential offered by these measures and intend to transform them into NAMAs that will contribute towards meeting Indonesia’s climate targets.