Reforming vocational education

Programme description

Title: Reforming technical and vocational education and training in Viet Nam
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) 
Country: Socialist Republic of Viet Nam
Lead executing agency: Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MoLISA)
Overall term: 2008 to 2014 (2017)


Viet Nam is aspiring to develop into an industrialised country by 2020, following a path of ‘green’ growth. Vocational education is central to this aspiration; the demand for skilled workers is increasing steadily as the country’s economy continues to grow, new technical challenges emerge and Viet Nam pursues regional and international competitiveness.
Viet Nam’s technical and vocational education and training (TVET) system is not yet adequately focused on the country’s economic and social needs. The employment potential in growth sectors cannot be utilised owing to a lack of skilled workers. At the same time, around one million people enter the labour market each year in search of employment to earn a living.
The Government of Viet Nam has therefore put vocational skills training and employment promotion at the heart of its development goals. It aims to raise the proportion of trained workers from 32 per cent at present to 55 per cent by 2020. It also wants to align vocational training more closely with the demands of a green and sustainable economy.


The training available for the labour force in Viet Nam has improved and has been adapted to meet the needs of a green and sustainable economy.


The programme is cooperating with its Vietnamese partners to implement comprehensive TVET reform. It provides policy and system advisory services and supports selected training institutions in improving the quality of the training they offer, and in making training more needs driven and practical.

Relevant actors from government, the business sector and civil society are being supported in jointly creating the framework for TVET that meets the needs of the regional labour market. Measures are centred on the participation of the business sector in the development of vocational standards, in the provision of training and in assessment and certification.

Selected TVET institutes are being advised in their further development to become competence centres that offer high quality and practical cooperative vocational training. The competence centres will also be qualified to fulfil additional tasks in the TVET system. The activities include practice-orientated advanced training for teachers and skilled trainers, and advisory services for school management, as well as developing and testing new educational training measures in cooperation with the business sector.

Results achieved so far

The programme has contributed significantly to the reform of the Vietnamese TVET system:

  • More than 200 multipliers – teaching and management staff of TVET institutes and training personnel from partner companies as well as experts and managers with the partner authority – have received training and are using their improved skills to reform the TVET system.
  • Recommendations derived from testing cooperative training models for collaborating with the business sector have been included in the new TVET law.
  • Around 9,300 trainees at the three supported vocational education institutes have benefited from the improved practical orientation of training made possible by the advanced training of teachers.
  • Vocational standards and training programmes for five professions have been developed with the involvement of companies, associations, partner authorities and national ministries. The involvement of the business sector ensures the market relevance of the training measures.
  • In structured, coordinated training phases, which take place in the TVET institutes and in partner companies, trainees participating in the pilot measure ‘Experts for sanitation technology’ gain theoretical knowledge as well as practical competencies and experience.
  • Ninety-four per cent of graduates from the supported TVET institutes who have completed courses promoted by the programme in metalwork, electro-technology and mechatronics have found employment appropriate to their training.
  • Social recognition of TEVT and the training courses offered by the institutes supported has improved. Image campaigns, photo exhibitions and career information reaching thousands of young people and parents have contributed to this.