Development and management of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs)

Project description

Title: Development and management of nationally appropriate mitigation actions in India
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB)
Country: India
Lead executing agency: Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC)
Overall term: 2013 to 2017


The Government of India has recognised the importance of climate change. In recent years, climate policy has been gaining increasing attention in the country, and in 2008 the National Action Plan on Climate Change was adopted. This plan is not, however, very specific, and often only provides qualitative possibilities for climate change mitigation, seldom focusing on the implementation of concrete actions.

Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions should support the Indian Government in linking socially and ecologically acceptable economic growth with greenhouse gas mitigation. However, NAMAs have not yet been implemented in India. In the future, the Indian Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change is to coordinate and monitor the implementation activities. The project is supporting the Ministry in leveraging and building up the necessary resources, structures and expertise, as well as developing NAMAs for the forestry and waste sectors.


The Indian Government uses NAMAs as a way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A coordinating office for implementing NAMAs is established in the Indian Ministry of Environment and staffed by trained personnel who can provide expert advice.


On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), GIZ advises the Indian Ministry of Environment on carrying out NAMAs in India and on technical and institutional issues.

This technical support includes conducting feasibility studies on the waste and forestry sectors. These studies will identify the sub-sectors within the waste management sector – such as municipal waste, energy production from waste, or recycling – and the forestry sector (for example reforestation) in which NAMA activities can achieve the most sustainable impacts. The NAMA plans that are subsequently formulated on the specific activities should ideally build on existing Indian Government programmes or policies. At the same time, they should promote implementation of the NAMAs and provide incentives for emission reductions. In order to develop realistic plans, there is a need for innovative financial solutions, which use publicly – and potentially internationally – available funds as a catalyst to make investments that have a mitigation impact.

The next step will involve developing methods with the project’s help to measure and verify the NAMA activities, and support reporting processes.

The Ministry of Environment is receiving advice on designing the institutional and personnel structure for the future NAMA coordination office. Together with the partners, the project is developing guidelines and frameworks for implementing NAMAs in India.


In July 2014, the Indian Ministry of Environment decided to produce NAMA plans for the waste and forestry sectors. Joint activities have confirmed that both NAMA plans are feasible, affordable and realistically formulated. It was crucial to develop criteria that could be used to select and prioritise NAMAs. Actions are weighted and their potential to draw international support is assessed according to whether they can contribute to socio-economic development, environmental conservation and the inclusion of the private sector. These criteria are discussed with officials responsible for implementing mitigation strategies as well as with investors, non-governmental organisations and experts. They promote a shared understanding and coherent approach to mitigating climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions in India. Last but not least, NAMAs have the potential to demonstrate that economic growth and sustainable, low-carbon development can go hand-in-hand – even in an emerging economy that is facing major challenges such as India.