Improving basic education and vocational training

Programme description

Title: Basic and Vocational Education and Training (Pro-Educação)
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Co-funded by: Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation
Country: Mozambique
Lead executing agency: Ministry of Education and Human Development; Ministry of Science and Technology, Higher and Technical Vocational Education
Overall term: 2019 to 2022



Access to basic education has improved greatly in recent years in Mozambique. The primary school enrolment rate for six-year-olds has risen from 55 per cent in 2000 to over 93 per cent in 2019. However, this rapid growth has come at the expense of education quality. In addition, many pupils drop out of school before reaching the seventh grade. In 2018, only around a quarter of all pupils completed the seven years of basic education.

Every year, 1.4 million children are enrolled in school, so the pressure on the Mozambican education system is extremely high. There is a lack of qualified teachers, administrative staff and head teachers, and the high rate of absenteeism among school staff is a fundamental problem. Illnesses, including HIV, are the main reason for them missing classes. At the same time, the rights of girls are still not always upheld and their access to education is impeded. Under-age girls are married off, and cases of unplanned pregnancy and sexual abuse by teachers are constantly occurring.

The shortcomings in the quality of basic education system likewise affect vocational training. The training for vocational school teachers does not take into account actual practice or the needs of the labour market. The vocational training they provide is likewise insufficiently geared to the labour market, and the content often lacks practical relevance. There are only isolated offers of careers guidance during the transition from basic education to vocational education and training or while job seeking. The private sector is insufficiently integrated into this. Poor qualifications make it difficult for many young people to find employment.


The quality of basic education and vocational training is improved.



The project’s approach is aligned with the goals and approaches of the national education strategy and vocational training reform. It works both with government actors and in the regions, particularly in the provinces of Sofala and Inhambane.

Key activities:

  • Skills for education management are enhanced in selected educational and vocational training institutions.
  • District administrations receive training in decentralised education management.
  • Inspection and school supervision work is improved. The project provides support in the form of process advice.
  • Absences of teachers and head teachers should be reduced. The project is working closely with the school councils to achieve this.
  • The project provides technical advice on using IT-based applications to manage school data. 
  • It provides support for the development of skills-based curricula, and of teaching and learning materials.
  • The use of information and communication technologies is promoted in teacher training as well as existing training courses.
  • Educators are trained to use these technologies in lessons.
  • The project offers advisory services for better support during the practical phases and after completion of teacher training.
  • In cooperation with companies, alternative training courses are implemented on a trial basis.
  • The project also raises awareness among education staff regarding the topics of HIV and health, and gender equality. Health and gender fairs are planned for this. The project also supports the establishment of pupils’ clubs in schools.

The consulting firm Integration GmbH supports the project, above all for the vocational education and training measures.


  • The percentage of pupils who have successfully completed the seventh grade (primary school) in the priority provinces of the project has increased. At 52 per cent in Inhambane and 38 per cent in Sofala in 2018, this figure was well above the national average of 28 per cent.
  • The Mozambique Ministry of Education has adopted education management instruments and processes developed with the project, and has introduced them nationwide. In the priority provinces, more than 60 per cent of district administrations now use these instruments and processes successfully. Other donors (such as UNICEF) are implementing this approach on a broader scale.
  • All 39 teacher training institutions and all school networks use a training film about participatory teaching methods. Its use has been incorporated into the national professional development strategy for teachers.
  • Half of the primary school teacher trainers advised by the programme make use of active teaching that involves participation by the trainees/learners.
  • The Mozambique Ministry of Education has developed and introduced a manual on HIV prevention together with the programme.
  • The role of the private sector in vocational training has been strengthened. The project played a substantial role in shaping the legislative process for this.
  • Selected curricula have been jointly developed with companies. These are now much more labour market-oriented.
  • Pupil and company satisfaction with the quality of vocational training courses has improved.

Additional information