Urban Management of Internal Migration due to Climate Change (UMIMCC) / Urban Management of Migration and Livelihoods (UMML)
Title: Urban Management of Internal Migration due to Climate Change (UMIMCC) / Urban Management of Migration and Livelihoods (UMML)
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), Co-Financed by the European Union (EU)
Lead executing agency: Ministry of Social Welfare (MoSW), Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
Overall term: 2018 to 2022
Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. It also has one of the highest urbanisation rates in Asia, with an urban population that is expected to double to 90 million by 2050. Rural-to-urban migration is projected to increase further because of climate change. This is due to the degrading of natural habitats on which many livelihoods depend as well as increased environmental risks that are associated with climate change, negatively affecting people’s living conditions and social support networks in rural areas.
Rural climate migrants migrate either permanently or temporarily into cities due to the loss of their livelihoods or properties, with the aspiration of refuge in urban centres. However, the recipient cities, such as Khulna, Rajshahi, Satkhira or Sirajganj, are themselves highly exposed to the effects of climate change and struggle to accommodate the increasing population.
Against this background, internal migration can reinforce acute vulnerability and further exacerbate conflicts if climate migrants receive insufficient public support and are prone to live in slum areas with inadequate infrastructure and without access to basic services and income opportunities. Considering the above aspects and in view of the success of the UMIMCC I project that terminated in 2017, UMIMCC/UMML strives to provide for sustainable and resilient livelihoods for climate migrants and other vulnerable urban poor in the slums of Rajshahi, Sirajganj, Khulna, Satkhira and Barishal, as well as for EU returnees.
The living conditions of climate migrants have improved in selected settlements in the partner cities of Barisal, Khulna, Rajshahi, Satkhira and Sirajganj as a result of needs-based measures.
The UMIMCC/UMML project follows an integrated urban livelihood approach to reduce extreme urban poverty and to increase livelihood options. The project aims at improving the living conditions of climate migrants in 47 slum settlements via needs-based measures in the cities of Rajshahi, Sirajganj, Khulna, Satkhira, and Barishal. It offers climate migrants income-generating opportunities via training measures, assistance to improve their access to public social services and finances, and it aims at increasing the cities’ capacity to accommodate migrants.
In addition, 6,000 of the climate migrants, vulnerable poor and EU returnees—40 per cent of them being women— will benefit from vocational training courses which will help them to acquire employable skill sets, improving their livelihoods. Trainings on entrepreneurship and basic final education are also offered.
Moreover, administrative structures of the project’s partner cities are strengthened to better manage the challenges of climate-induced internal migration. More efficient and transparent municipal administrations will facilitate more effective and inclusive access to improved public services for all population groups. The existing public social service programmes become more accessible through municipal information hubs, in which the project supports setting up.
Furthermore, the project converts lessons learnt from the implementation of participatory poverty reduction measures into policy recommendations and feeds experience gained in best practice cases into the national political dialogue.
It is the first project funded by the German government that addresses challenges of climate migrants in cities.
Areas of intervention
- Livelihood generation through employment qualification
- Improved access to social services
- Livelihood generation through empowerment and the provision of linkages to finance and business consultancies
- Livelihood improvement through direct support measures
- Identification of poverty reduction measures and their preparation for the National Policy Dialogue