Implementing the national climate policy (BMU)
Title: IKI climate policy programme, Brazil
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)
Lead executing agency: Brazilian Ministry of the Environment (Ministério do Meio Ambiente, MMA)
Overall term: 2016 to 2021
In recent years, Brazil has started to develop and implement a comprehensive national climate policy. In September 2016, the country submitted its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the United Nations (UN). The aim is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 37 per cent by 2025 and by 43 per cent by 2030 (relative to 2005 levels). In the run-up to this, nine sector plans for reduction, an adaptation plan, a national climate act and a national climate plan for implementing this act were prepared within the context of a voluntary commitment to reduce greenhouse gases.
As a consequence of these new objectives, Brazil faces the challenge of restructuring climate governance and updating national climate policy instruments that have an impact on sector policies and investment programmes.
Brazil is successfully implementing selected areas of national climate policy.
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) is supporting the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Finance and other partner institutions in the following areas of national climate policy:
- Transparency system: A monitoring system is being established within several ministries and institutions. It monitors the impacts of and progress achieved by measures and strategies for the implementation of NDCs.
- International financial instrument for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+): The framework conditions for the implementation of the national REDD+ strategy are being improved – for example, by including and training representatives of indigenous and traditional peoples.
- Adaptation plan: Vulnerability maps are being drawn up for all 5,570 municipalities as part of the national adaptation plan. These show the degree of vulnerability of these districts for the risk categories of droughts, landslides and flooding.
- National Climate Fund: The institutional capacities of the National Climate Fund are being strengthened.
- Climate finance: State and private actors are being strengthened in order to support the implementation of measures, strategies and instruments in the area of climate finance.
- Emissions registry: The regulatory impacts of various concepts for facility-specific greenhouse gas reporting in Brazil are being evaluated by the GFA consulting consortium, WayCarbon and the Environment Agency Austria, together with the Ministry of Finance.
- Knowledge management: Cooperation and the flow of information between the main stakeholders in Brazilian climate policy are being continually improved.
So far, the project has achieved the following results:
- Inter-ministerial exchange on priorities regarding the selection of strategies and parameters for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change has been strengthened.
- The process of dialogue between government and civil society on shaping the REDD+ strategy has been improved by the increased participation of representatives of indigenous and traditional peoples and communities.
- With the support of this programme, the Government of Brazil has developed reform proposals for the Brazilian Climate Fund with the aim of increasing its effectiveness by means of third-party funding.
- The establishment of a basis for decision-making – which is founded on an ex-ante impact analysis and experience with facility-specific greenhouse gas reporting at federal-state and international levels – for designing economic instruments such as a CO2 tax or emissions trading.
- Exchange on climate issues has been improved – for example, by networking all projects of the International Climate Initiative (IKI) that are active in Brazil, along with their partner organisations.
- Inter-institutional dialogue on recommendations for a strategy for implementing NDCs has been strengthened by the work of the Brazilian Climate Change Forum.