Promoting sustainable urban transport
Programme title: Sustainable Urban Transport Programme Indonesia – NAMA (Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions)
Commissioned by: NAMA Facility (German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS))
Lead executing agency: Kementerian Perhubungan (Ministry of Transportation)
Overall term: 2016 to 2020
In 2009 the Indonesian Government made a commitment to reduce greenhouse gases by 26 per cent by 2020 and to a 41per cent reduction in the event of international support. Indonesia’s transport sector has up to now been the third-largest source of energy-related CO2 emissions. In 2010 alone, the number of the country’s population living in urban areas grew by 50 per cent.. Constant economic growth and the consequent increase in motorisation are putting particular pressure on cities, with numbers of private vehicles rising dramatically. The annual rate of growth in motorcycles and cars in Indonesia was previously around 15 per cent. Between 2010 and 2035 the number of registered vehicles is set to double.
Due to the poor quality of public transport and non-motorised transport, more and more people are using private cars or motorbikes, which then becomes a vicious circle. One of the key challenges facing urban decision-makers, therefore, is to introduce sustainable transport systems and at the same time reduce air pollution and greenhouse gases.
Unclear responsibilities in authorities and institutions represent another challenge for the transport sector. Know-how among technical and managerial staff is often insufficient, and organisational processes, responsibilities and duties are not well defined. Local public transport users, pedestrians and cyclists are finding travel more and more difficult, traffic congestion is becoming worse, air and noise pollution caused by vehicles is increasing, and so is the number of traffic accidents.
The legal and institutional framework for national and local transport policy and transport administration is vague and weak, particularly at the level of local government. Most local government bodies lack the necessary expertise in integrated transport planning or the financial resources to design sustainable transport systems. Indonesia also has no regulated structures to provide local governments with the technical or financial support to develop and put in place sustainable transport systems.
Public transport in Indonesian cities is sustainably improved as a result of a new national programme of investment in sustainable mobility and accompanying capacity development at national and local level.
In order to improve the transport situation in cities, push and pull measures are required that make energy-intensive private transport less attractive and at the same time increase the appeal of public transport systems and non-motorised transport infrastructure. The programme is closely aligned with the project financed by the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) that is implementing bus rapid transit (BRT) corridors in Indonesia.
The programme team is setting up a technical support unit in the Ministry of Transportation to support local and district governments. This unit will be the central hub responsible for planning, implementing and overseeing urban transport strategies and for advising districts and municipalities.
The programme is also advising the Ministry on setting up a financing mechanism so that it can more effectively assign public funds allocated for local public transport promotion and transport demand management.
Technical and managerial staff in Indonesian city administrations are being trained in transport planning to increase their level of expertise and enable them to devise long-term transport strategies.
The programme is providing financial and practical support to pilot projects in seven cities. Together with its partner, the programme is setting up a measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) system for greenhouse gas emissions. The programme is thereby contributing to a fundamental shift in Indonesia’s urban transport policy and creating real opportunities for public and private investments in infrastructure measures that will also extend beyond the term of the programme.