Reducing industrial emissions protects the environment, climate and health
Title: Best Available Techniques (BAT) for Ukraine
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)
Lead executing agency: Міністерство екології та природних ресурсів України (Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine [MENR])
Overall term: 2019 to 2023
Industrial emissions are responsible for much of the environmental pollution in Ukraine, including air pollutants, wastewater and industrial waste. Not only are these contaminants a threat to the environment, they are also detrimental to human health and, in the form of greenhouse gas emissions, contribute to climate change. Environmental standards have been laid down in an array of separate laws to date, and responsibilities have been divided between several departments within the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources (MENR).
In 2017, under the Association Agreement with the European Union (EU), Ukraine pledged to implement requirements of the EU’s Industrial Emissions Directive (IED). The IED is built around the concept of best available techniques (BAT) as the key element in the law governing the granting of permits to industrial plants. For each affected sector, comprehensive standards have been drawn up and set out in Best Available Technique Reference Documents. The Ukrainian Government is discussing the proposals with industry and environmental organisations and making it mandatory for plant operators to deploy these techniques after a transition period. The aim is to reduce industrial emissions or even prevent them altogether.
The principle of integrated reduction and prevention of environmental pollution and the BAT approach are both being pursued rigorously in Ukraine, which has improved the environmental performance of its industry. Its capacity for implementing the IED in terms of human resources, financing and organisation has also expanded steadily.
The project supports Ukraine in introducing a system for preventing and reducing industrial emissions. Creating the statutory framework is a complex process that covers issues ranging from transposing the IED into Ukrainian law to adopting technical solutions.
The project therefore works closely with MENR at all stages of the legislative process. For example, it advises the Ministry on an overhaul of the permit system for industrial plants and on environmental inspections. Training sessions and study trips enable staff at the Ministry, relevant government agencies and the concerned industrial plants to learn more about their new tasks and responsibilities.
A new data management system records emissions from industrial plants and makes this information available to the general public. The initial focus is on the metal production and processing sector and the mineral processing industry. A funding programme is designed to create incentives for operators of installations to invest in modernising their production facilities so as to cut their emissions. As well as improving health and environmental protection and helping to mitigate climate change, the BAT approach thus also contributes to the modernisation of Ukrainian industry.