Good training creates future prospects for young people
Title: Promotion of technical vocational education and training (TVET)
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Lead executing agencies: Afghan TVET Authority
Overall term: 2010 to 2022
There are about 3.2 million young people living in Afghanistan who could receive formal vocational training. While around one million of the 15 to 19-year-olds attend a secondary school, only 65,000 participate in formal full-time vocational training. Some 2.2 million young people receive informal training directly at their workplaces.
Around 20 per cent of young people complete a traditional apprenticeship lasting approximately three years in the informal economy without state support. Another 50 or so per cent of young people between the ages of 15 and 19 have either never attended or dropped out of school and work as day labourers or street vendors. They, too, receive a maximum of one year’s on-the-job training. The training situation is particularly difficult for young women, 80 or so per cent of whom have no access to vocational training.
Thus, young women starting out in their careers often lack the theoretical background knowledge to carry out work in a targeted and efficient manner.
The Afghan Government has begun to supplement the deficits of these training courses with technical and vocational education and training (TVET) lessons for apprentices. The combination of theory and practice enhances the employability of young people.
The Afghan vocational training system improves the employability of young people through technical and vocational education and training that compensates for the weaknesses of in-company training.
Together with the TVET Authority (TVET-A), the project is developing initial and in-service training for teachers, vocational examinations and training occupations that are geared to the needs of the economy. The innovations will be tested at 66 pilot TVET schools, which will be provided with the necessary equipment to supplement the in-company practical experience in training. Employees of the TVET-A and the local college supervisory authorities will also receive training to improve their administrative and management skills.
The gradual modernisation of traditional apprenticeship training is already underway. Selected pilot schools in 16 provinces provide access to modern technology and up-to-date knowledge for apprentices in the informal economy. These include almost 90 per cent of Afghan businesses. Apprentices who have completed year 9 are offered a three-year course at a TVET schools to accompany the in-company training. Completion of this training is equivalent to completion of full-time school-based vocational training.
The combination of work and school based TVET is also to be made available to illiterate young women and men. Vocational training opportunities are to be created for young women in particular. A further field of action is the development of training opportunities for tradespeople at master craftsman level and for engineers at university of applied sciences level.
- Studies initiated and conducted by the project to analyse vocational training practices and traditions in Afghanistan form the basis for the 2019-2023 TVET strategy, which was adopted in November 2019.
- Specially trained college inspectors have developed a quality framework for the analysis, evaluation and support of TVET schools. So far, 20 schools have been evaluated.
- 51 TVET schools have already been newly equipped and five completely refurbished. Currently, 17 TVET schools are being renovated, with the total expected to reach 30 by the end of 2020.
- In 2018, eight reformed and labour market-oriented curricula for teaching years 10-12 were approved by TVET-A. In total, seven curricula were developed for the teaching of apprentices during their training in the subjects of automotive engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, metalworking, tailoring, cosmetics and, since 2019, retail.
- In 2019, the first 100 apprentices completed the three-year training course. Almost 2,000 apprentices, 23 per cent of them women, currently receive instruction at 27 TVET schools. By the end of 2021, 4,200 apprentices will be receiving instruction during their training at 45 TVET schools.
- By 2018, 28 master trainers* had been trained. They have already delivered in-service training to 13,222 teachers (multiple counts).
- Between 2012 and 2018, 43,433 young people completed a four-week internship at 3,458 (multiple counts) Afghan companies.
- In 2018, 142 TVET schools administration officials passed final tests of 15 in-service training measures. These individuals are now helping to improve the management of TVET schools.