System advisory services for technical and vocational education and training
Title: Reforming technical and vocational education and training in Viet Nam – activity area: ‘Policy advice and systemic reforms’
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Country: Socialist Republic of Viet Nam
Lead executing agency: Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MoLISA)
Overall term: 2008 to 2014 (2017)
Viet Nam is aiming to become an industrialised country by 2020, while following a path of ‘green’ growth. Vocational education is central to this aspiration, for the demand for skilled workers is increasing steadily as the economy continues to grow, new technical challenges emerge and the country pursues regional and international competitiveness. Although about 1.4 million people enter the labour market each year, there is a shortage of skilled workers and technicians with practical training. Only about 27% of workers currently have training that is relevant to the jobs they do, while just 15% have completed formal vocational training.
The Government of Viet Nam has therefore put vocational skills training and employment promotion at the heart of its development goals. By 2020, the proportion of trained workers should have risen to 55% from its current 30%. At the same time, vocational training should become more closely oriented to the needs of a green economy.
The performance and demand orientation of the Vietnamese technical and vocational training system have improved sustainably.
This component of the programme ‘Reforming technical and vocational education and training in Viet Nam’ provides advice on conceptual developments and legislation supporting a needs-driven, regionally compatible vocational training system. The advisory services relate to the roles and responsibilities of the actors involved, to the practical focus of the training and to the involvement of the private sector, for instance in developing occupational standards, putting cooperative training models into effect and conducting independent examinations. Special attention is being paid to improving teacher training, and shortcomings are being gradually overcome, above all with regard to specialist skills and teaching skills.
A special effort is made to promote inter-sectoral cooperation involving the state, private sector and civil society, at both national and local levels. At the same time, by further promoting capacity development within GDVT, the programme is making a considerable contribution to donor coordination.
Results achieved so far
The programme has contributed to significant improvements in practical, needs-driven training.
- More than 200 multipliers have received further training to date (teaching and management staff of the vocational colleges as well as expert and management personnel with the partner authority). Thanks to the advisory services and training courses, the experts and managers are now better able to plan, introduce and guide reform steps.
- Some 90% of graduates from the supported vocational training institutions who have completed courses in the promoted subjects of metalwork, electro-technology and mechatronics have found employment. The capacities of the vocational training institutions themselves and the Vietnamese National Institute for Vocational Training (NIVT) to carry out studies tracing the progress of graduates have been developed.
- In the latest policy papers, including the Vocational Training Development Strategy for 2011-2020, the emphasis is on increasing the quality and demand-orientation of the training activities. This is also a result of the advice provided through the programme.
- The recommendations of the regional vocational education conference have been fed into the reform of vocational education legislation, along with other advisory inputs related to the teaching staff, cooperation with the private sector, occupational standards and financing for vocational training. They have also been taken up by the donors’ working group for the sector (co-chaired by Germany).
- Photo exhibitions with a positive media impact, and information material about vocational occupations have reached thousands of young people and their parents.
- Human resources development has been anchored in the national action plan for the green growth strategy and activities have been initiated to make vocational training more environmentally friendly.
- Together with the Vietnamese partner, the programme has developed a basic strategy for centres of excellence in vocational education.
- In a triangular cooperation arrangement involving NIVT, GIZ and the German Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training, the appropriate know-how has been developed for the publication of Viet Nam’s annual vocational education report.
- Development partnerships have begun between private sector players and vocational training institutions (e.g. with B. Braun, Messer, Europäisches Bildungswerk für Beruf und Gesellschaft, Festo, and Bau Sachsen), which are improving the quality and demand-orientation of the training courses.