Policy advice and systemic reforms
Title: Reforming technical and vocational education and training in Viet Nam – field of activity 1: Policy advice and systemic reforms
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Country: Socialist Republic of Viet Nam
Lead executing agency: Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MoLISA)
Overall term: 2010 to 2020
Viet Nam is aspiring to develop into an industrialised country by 2020, following a path of ‘green’ growth. Vocational education is central to this aspiration; the demand for skilled workers is increasing steadily as the country’s economy continues to grow, new technical challenges emerge and Viet Nam pursues regional and international competitiveness.
Viet Nam’s technical and vocational education and training (TVET) system is not yet adequately focused on the country’s economic and social needs. The employment potential in growth sectors cannot be utilised owing to a lack of skilled workers. At the same time, around one million people enter the labour market each year in search of employment to earn a living.
The Government of Viet Nam has therefore put vocational skills training and employment promotion at the heart of its development goals. It aims to raise the proportion of trained workers from 32 per cent at present to 55 per cent by 2020. It also wants to align vocational training more closely with the demands of a green and sustainable economy.
The training available for the labour force in Viet Nam has improved and has been adapted to meet the needs of a green and sustainable economy.
The project supports key actors from government, the private sector and civil society as they work together to establish conducive conditions for vocational training geared to the labour market and aligned to regional requirements. The project advises the Directorate for Vocational Education and Training at the Ministry of Labour on the development of policy and reform strategies and also on designing appropriate laws and regulations. Key areas are the integration of the private sector in the development of professional standards, the implementation of cooperative training models and the establishment of independent examinations.
The project also assists the Directorate with developing a network of centres of excellence for vocational training and with planning and implementing the contributions made by the vocational education system to the country's green growth strategy. A special effort is made to promote inter-sectoral cooperation involving the state, private sector and civil society, at both national and local levels. At the same time, by further promoting capacity development within the Directorate, the programme is making a considerable contribution to donor coordination.
Results achieved so far
The project has made a significant contribution to reforming the TVET system in Viet Nam:
- Ninety-two specialists and managers from the Directorate for Vocational Education and Training and the Ministry of Labour have received further training and are using their improved skills to reform the TVET system including for the development of implementing provisions for the new law on vocational training.
- Recommendations on cooperation with the private sector that have been derived from the piloted cooperative training models have also been incorporated in the new law on vocational training.
- Human resources development has been anchored in the national action plan for the green growth strategy and activities to align vocational training more closely with measures to benefit climate change, the environment and conservation of resources have also been adopted ('greening').
- Together with the Vietnamese partner, the project has developed a basic strategy for centres of excellence in vocational education.
- The National Institute for Vocational Education and Training (NIVET), the German Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training and GIZ have entered into a cooperation arrangement. NIVET employees have gained special qualifications in the course of this cooperation. Now NIVET is the first research institute in the ASEAN region that is able to provide regular reports on vocational training as a basis for evidence-based political decisions.
- Out of the students who have completed the funded metalwork, electrotechnology and mechatronic training courses from the vocational training institutions that received support, 94 per cent have found employment that is appropriate for their training. Resources are provided at the vocational training institutions and at NIVET to carry out studies tracing the progress of graduates.
- Monitoring and evaluation instruments have been developed further to improve the quality of vocational training and these instruments have been integrated into the quality management system of the Directorate for Vocational Education and Training at the Ministry of Labour.
- Social recognition of vocational training and vocational education courses at the supported vocational training institutions has improved. Image campaigns, photo exhibitions and career information reaching thousands of young people and their parents have contributed to this.
- Development partnerships between business and vocational training institutions (including B. Braun, Messer, Europäisches Bildungswerk für Beruf und Gesellschaft, Festo, and Bau Sachsen) are improving the quality and demand-orientation of the training courses on offer at the supported vocational training institutions.