187 countries have ratified the Paris Agreement, committing themselves to combating climate change. The common goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C – and if possible to 1.5°C – above pre-industrial levels.
A large share of global greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to transport. It is also a particularly important area of climate policy given the increasing rates of motorisation and rising demand for mobility. Indeed, there is a growing awareness that transport systems must be changed fundamentally to fulfil the aims of the Paris Agreement.
In order to develop long-term measures, reliable and comprehensive data is essential. For a complete reduction of transport sector emissions to zero, it will also be necessary to decarbonise the energy sector and use renewable energy for transport. While e-mobility is key to achieving this for road and railway transport, the aviation and maritime sectors will need alternative fuels based on green hydrogen.
Developing countries and emerging economies are recording and reducing transport sector emissions.
The partner countries achieve their climate goals for 2030 and long-term climate strategies for 2050.
The project helps Viet Nam, Kenya and Morocco achieve their climate goals (Nationally Determined Contributions, NDCs), working with the partner countries’ transport and environment ministries in a variety of areas and supporting the following measures in particular:
(1) improving national data collection methods in the transport sector;
(2) implementing best practice in recording and forecasting emissions;
(3) developing and implementing effective climate policy measures in transport, thus aiding the NDC process; and
(4) sharing knowledge in order to encourage the development of local expertise.
The partners in Kenya, Morocco and Viet Nam receive help with developing forecasts of potential developments in the transport sector that enable them to identify where they can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project assists with the development and implementation of associated climate policy measures. A further area of activity is the establishment of reporting and monitoring systems to ensure compliance with climate targets.
The project promotes the development of local expertise in measuring emissions and standardises data collection. Through the international exchange of the knowledge gained in the partner countries and the experiences gathered, other countries benefit from the project activities as well. Moreover, the global use of uniform measurement methods will make transport sector data comparable.
In order to promote the use of more renewable energy in transport, the project will establish an international secretariat of expertise on sustainable power-to-X technologies. The International PtX Hub Berlin will support the global dissemination of knowledge and best practice in the area of e-fuels. The PtX Hub will develop a network for the exchange of knowledge on synthetic fuels and raw materials.
In the first phase from 2016 to 2019, a number of quantifiable successes were achieved in the partner countries:
- In Kenya and Viet Nam, the project has helped departments of government to improve data collection, develop forecasts on the transport sector and identify effective climate policy measures, which had an impact on the development of the NDCs.
- In both countries, these activities, as well as workshops and training sessions, also contributed to the development of local expertise in data collection and reporting and the improvement of forecast modelling and long-term climate policy planning.
- Working closely with the Secretariat of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the project developed the transport volume of the Compendium on Greenhouse Gas Baselines and Monitoring, which it presented at climate and transport conferences and showcased in an eight-part webinar series. It comprises over 30 methods of quantifying the emission reductions of climate protection measures in transport.
- Furthermore, in cooperation with the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg (ifeu), the project has developed the mathematical model TrIGGER, which partner countries can use to analyse transport emissions and independently monitor their progress in various transport sub-sectors. To date, the model has been used in Kenya, Tunisia, St. Vincent, Morocco, Peru and South Africa.